Leading America’s Energy Workforce

For the second year in a row, energy efficiency is America’s fastest-growing energy industry — accounting for about half (76,000) of the sector’s entire job growth in 2018 (151,700) — now eclipsing 2.3 million American workers.

Led by a growth rate double the nationwide average, energy efficiency is currently responsible for one out of every four jobs in the energy sector while employing more Americans than the entire fossil fuel industry in 41 states and the District of Columbia. Nationwide, energy efficiency businesses employs twice the number of workers as fossil fuels.

This sector’s consistently strong year-over-year job growth—and growing integration in the economic value chain and built environment—is turning the industry into the energy sector’s most viable (and efficient) job creator. Across every time zone, state, county line, and even zip code, energy efficiency solutions are advancing economic opportunities for American workers and their families. Jobs that will grow locally, jobs that cannot be outsourced.


The 2019 Energy Efficiency Jobs in America report includes an 7-page national summary and individual factsheets for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia that include more detailed findings including job totals for every congressional and legislative district, industry and technology breakdowns, and maps of every state’s top counties.

Alabama | Alaska  Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware |District of Columbia| Florida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | IowaKansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland |MassachusettsMichiganMinnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska Nevada | New Hampshire |  New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | OregonPennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming |

A Bigger Picture

This annual report focuses solely on the energy sector of the economy. Jobs in retail trade, vehicle efficiency-related work, and the 4.2 million jobs related to efficient manufacturing processes are excluded from these numbers.

Previous Reports


  • ENERGY STAR® Appliances & Efficient Lighting – 538,390 jobs
  • Building Materials & Insulation – 357,765 jobs
  • Vital Energy Efficiency Services – 290,203 jobs
  • HVAC (Heating Ventilation & Air Conditioning) – 1,138,507 jobs
  • ALL Energy Efficiency Industries – 2,324,865 jobs


According to the 2019 Energy Efficiency Jobs in America, America’s energy efficiency sector:

  • increased employment 3.4% in 2018, adding 76,000 new jobs to the economy
  • is America’s fastest growing and largest energy jobs sector
  • accounts for 28% of U.S. energy workers are involved in energy efficiency
  • supports 321,000 manufacturing workers
  • supports over 50,000 workers in 17 states and at least 11,000 in 40 states
  • employs workers in 99.7% of U.S. counties
  • employs 370,000 workers efficient lighting technologies
  • employs 167,000 workers in ENERGY STAR® appliances
  • employs 1.1 million in heating, ventilation, and cooling technologies
  • has twice as many workers as all fossil fuel sectors combined
  • is made up of 360,000 businessesdominated by small businesses employing fewer than 20 employees (79%)
  • employs more than 317,000 rural Americans, and 928,000 in America’s top 25 metro areas
  • accounts for more than 1 out of every 6 U.S. construction workers

AMERICA’S TOP 10 STATES | 2019 Energy Efficiency Jobs


For questions on this report, methodology, reported job numbers, or requests for specific additional data, email E2 Communications Director Michael Timberlake (mtimberlake@e2.org). An FAQ for the report, including answers to questions on methodology, is available here.


If you are looking for additional insight into E4The Future and E2’s other research and publications on the energy economy, visit E4TheFuture’s Publications homepage or E2’s Reports homepage.

This report follows E2’s Clean Jobs America analysis which found the clean energy jobs account for nearly 3.3 million jobs across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Both reports expand on data from the U.S. Energy and Employment Report (USEER) produced by the Energy Futures Initiative (EFI) in partnership with the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), using data collected and analyzed by the BW Research Partnership. E2 is a partner on the USEER, the fourth installment of the energy survey first released by the Department of Energy in 2016. Clean energy jobs have grown every year since the first report was released in 2016.


Energy Efficiency Jobs in America is only one in a series of state and industry reports produced by E2 and our partners.

Take Action - Sign Up for Email Updates

Press Releases - Our Latest Press Releases


REPORT: Record-Breaking Losses, Extreme Weather Trends Threaten Economies In Red And Blue States Alike

Analysis identifies historic and future trends by disaster type and region, down to the state, county, and congressional district Economic costs of climate change are growing alongside economic opportunities for action WASHINGTON, DC – As...



REPORT: Midwest Clean Energy Jobs Grew 5% in 2021, Now Home to 714,323 Workers

Midwest’s clean energy economy positioned for even greater growth with Inflation Reduction Act investments Chicago, IL – Clean energy businesses in the Midwest added more than 36,400 workers in 2021, now employing 714,323 Midwesterners across the region. T...



E2: New California Rule on Clean Vehicles Smart for the Economy

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is expected to adopt the Advanced Clean Cars II (ACII) regulation, which requires all new cars and trucks sold in California to be zero-emission vehicles beginning in 2035. The rule builds on California’s legacy of ...

Donate Today